Thursday, May 21, 2020
Stranger in a Strange Land is a book written by Robert A. Heinlein that completely throws away the social mores of the late fifties/ early sixties society. The book opens with a ship returning from a trip to Mars with an interesting passenger, a man, Michael Valentine Smith who was the son of a previous voyage to Mars that was believed to be entirely dead. This was a human raised by Martians, who are an ancient race that has various powers that are discovered later in the book to be possessed by Smith through his knowledge of their language. When Smith gets to earth the U.S. government, under the pretense that he is not well sequesters him away in a hospital. Smith is spirited away by a nurse and her reporter friend. Smith is taken toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the book Heinlein followed and influenced some of the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s counterculture. The Hippie movement started in the early sixties and continued in force until roughly 1970 (Hippies and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s counterculture). H ippies rebelled against their parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ conformity and many ran away from home to experiment with their lives and what they could do. Heinlein wrote Stranger in 1962, although in letters to his editor he had been thinking about writing the book since the late forties (Grumbles from the Grave), the book was a huge success largely thanks to the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s counterculture as the book portrays many of their ideals. Stranger in a Strange Land falls in perfect step with the Free Love movement influencing it in a few ways; in the book Michael Valentine Smith creates a small commune in which sex is common, shared, and without jealousy, sex for Smith starts at a Ã¢â¬Å"youngÃ¢â¬ age, although he is a man, socially he has had no experience. This book came about at a time when the hippie movement was gaining steam and it influenced hippie leaders in how they viewed sex the book was written in direct opposition to the social standards of the fifties and it is very different with itsS how MoreRelatedWomen on the Edge of Time and Stranger in a Strange Land Essay1254 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe novel Women on the Edge of Time and Stranger in a Strange Land have some similarities. They both depict how the gender socialization process is bias and a catalyst to gender disparity in the society. Both stories bring to light how men are given privileged as compared to women in the society. Analyzing the two stories and using outside sources I will draw a conclusion on how gender and power ideologies have equality impacted our society. Ã¢â¬Å"Women on the Edge of TimeÃ¢â¬ is a book written by MargeRead MoreAnalysis Of Richard Rodriguez s A Stranger And Strange Lands Essay2274 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesstudying the concept of reading and writing in different communities. To assess this, we have read two different texts. Richard RodriguezÃ¢â¬â¢s the achievement of desireÃ¢â¬ , from his autobiography Ã¢â¬Å"Hunger of MemoryÃ¢â¬ ; and Lucille McCarthyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Stranger in Strange Lands: A College Student Writing across the CurriculumÃ¢â¬ from Ã¢â¬Å"Research in the Teaching of EnglishÃ¢â¬ . Both answer key questions regarding what it takes to become a great reader and writer, however, from the reading that I have done, each one onlyRead MoreThe Human Martian, By Robert A. Heinlein1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe the truth about religion to the world and create a utopian society in the novel Stranger in a Strange Land by Robert A. Heinlein. Heinlein served in the Navy and was a socialist politician bef ore beginning his writing career. His second wife had a large influence on his political views and was the one who convinced him to run for the state assembly. After his loss, he became an author. Stranger in a Strange Land is HeinleinÃ¢â¬â¢s most popular book, however, his views on socialism and liberalism wereRead MoreNo Men Are Foreign1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNo Men Are Foreign ------------------------------------------------- [pic] No men are foreign tell us that we should not consider anyone as foreign or strange. Humanity is the same all over the world and in harming anyone we are harming ourselves. This poem emphasizes the fact that men might belong to different races, nations, but are basically bound by a common bond i.e. they all feel pain when hurt and shed tears on the loss of someone close and wars should not break this common bondage.Read MoreMy Student Personnel Class : An Director Of The International Center At Springfield College901 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinternational students to be an active part of the college community. To be successful in this field, according to Deborah, ones need to have empathy and communication skills. They should possess the ability to understand what it is like to be a stranger in a strange land, to have an open mind and the patience in understanding differences. Her position demands her to have a balanced role between being an administrator and an educator. She both ensures that the international studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ logistical needs areRead MoreThe Immigrants Experience Through The Graphic Novel The Arrival 1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTan sets many emotions and thoughts in motion, without using any words. Tan depicts the many challenges immigrants face when venturing to a foreign land for the first time. This graphic novel depict the immigrant experience in a very effective way. Tan does so by using many different methods to demonstrate this experience, the strange language, strange surrounds, and unfamiliar people, are some of the most prominent. While the immigrant story is often one riddled with struggle, they too have timesRead MoreEssay on History of Thanksgiving885 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmother country, and inured the difficulties of a strange and hard land, which yet in a great part we have by patience overcome . . .Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (qtd. in Philbrick 6). After the Pilgrims arrived they picked land by rivers with good planting area and called it Plymouth. A harsh winter came quickly upon the Pilgrims where they faced many hardships before spring relieved them. Now was their time to plant and prepare for the oncoming year. They did not know the land well and many people say that the only reason theyRead MorePowers of Horror by Julia Kristeva, Questions and Answers1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTo what extent are we all Ã¢â¬Ëstrangers to ourselvesÃ¢â¬â¢, even in our own countries? Answer with reference to KristevaÃ¢â¬â¢s book. Exile, the reality and practice of being barred from a native country, has prolifically influenced many philosophersÃ¢â¬â¢ theoretical writings. Indeed, Julia Kristeva being in exile from her native Bulgaria is a foreigner in an unascertained land. Being an outcast influenceÃ¢â¬â¢s her philosophical, political and sociological extended essay Strangers to Ourselves published in 1991. TheRead MoreThe Golden Fleece And The Golden Rule880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesterrible pain and suffering were almost always the outcome. If someone were to treat a guest rudely in their home, it would greatly upset Zeus, as, Ã¢â¬Å"Hospitality was, of course, very important to him, as since all guests, all who seek shelter in a strange land, were under his especial protectionÃ¢â¬ (147). This concept, called xenia, shows up and plays and important role in a plethora of popular ancient Greek myths, including Ã¢â¬Å"The Quest of the Golden FleeceÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Baucis and Philemon,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Th e OdysseyÃ¢â¬ , showingRead MoreThe Odyssey1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Odyssey In HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epic, The Odyssey, each culture treats strangers and guests with distinct differences from every other culture. One of the most hospitable cultures was that of the ancient Greeks, exemplified in Homer s The Odyssey by both gracious hosts and guests. In Greece and The Odyssey, not only was good hospitality etiquette expected, but the added pressure that if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t treat their guests with respect the gods would punish them further compelled excellent manners. The Odyssey
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Advertising has had a major impact on society. Some may be considered positive and some negative. Take a look around, advertisements are placed everywhere, television commercials, billboards, newspapers, and even on the sides of buses. Advertising is the basic form of marketing and trading throughout the world. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s society knows it as marketers trying to influence or persuade consumers into buying something. It also serves as a medium for services and businesses. There are many advertising strategies, but television commercials will always remain the number one strategy. Think about it, how much television is watched a day, probably a lot. What better way to advertise a product or service? Advertising has a positive effect on our economy. It does not only influence and persuade consumers, but it also benefits them in many ways. It also benefits manufacturers and their company, and the world as a whole. Consumers have wants and needs, and the most popular way to get those products known to consumers is advertising. Advertising provides the consumers with important information about the products and or services. Plus, how would the consumers know about things if they were not advertised in a particular way. Advertisements educate the consumers about the positive and negative effect of a product. For example, a medical, commercial may across your television or you may even see an ad about it in a magazine, throughout that ad the marketer will explain to you the good thatShow MoreRelatedCritique on Advertising in Our Society1034 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCritique On Advertising In Our Society A critique on the impact of advertising in our society. Consider visuals and verbal or written language. (1000 words) The impact of advertising on our society is a fiercely debated topic, and has been ever since the conception of advertising in its most basic form. There are negative and positive social and economic impacts upon society from advertising in its various forms. For instance, advertising promoting public welfare has a positive social impact uponRead More Advertising: the good and bad Essay1193 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Advertising is a persuasive communication attempt to change or reinforce oneÃ¢â¬â¢s prior attitude that is predictable of future behavior. We are not born with the attitudes for which we hold toward various things in our environment. Instead, we learn our feelings of favorability or unfavorability through information about the object through advertising or direct experience with the object, or some combination of the two. Furthermore, the main aim of advertising is to Ã¢â¬ËpersuadeÃ¢â¬â¢ to consumer in orderRead MoreAdvertising1204 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Impact Of Advertising Impact based advertising is a form of advertising designed to have a lasting psychological effect on viewers so they will remember the product or vendor. This approach can help advertising produce the greatest results for a given expenditure. Impact based advertising is often contrasted with impression based advertising, which is focused on the number of times that an ad is seen and does not differentiate between segments of the audience. Impact-based advertising seeks toRead MoreEffect Of Advertising On Society Essay1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTalking about advertising, on the one hand, it is good for its functions, displays, etc.; on the other hand, sometimes it is too good to be true, the way they bring the messages to the consumers which state Ã¢â¬Å"the number one Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . What truly are the miscommunications and how do the viewers react to different types of stimulation among those, are there negative or positive results? This review of literature scope was led by the following question: When it comes to communication and advertising are there positiveRead MoreAdvertising: the Good and Bad Essay1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAdvertising is a persuasive communication attempt to change or reinforce ones prior attitu de that is predictable of future behavior. We are not born with the attitudes for which we hold toward various things in our environment. Instead, we learn our feelings of favorability or unfavorability through information about the object through advertising or direct experience with the object, or some combination of the two. Furthermore, the main aim of advertising is to Ãâpersuade to consumer in order toRead MoreThe Media And Its Effects On Teen And Young Undeveloped Brains1237 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe advertising business views teenagers in society as a viable market section, due to their immature understanding of the media and its dazzling impact on teen and young undeveloped brains. The media is progressively specializing in children and adolescents to captivate with advertisements. according to market research corporations, teenagers are vital to marketers because they can pay a considerable open income, spend family cash easily, and they are easily able to influence the ir families to spendRead MoreAdvertising Vs Society : Close Your Eyes Essay1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesZuÃ ±iga1 Angela ZuÃ ±iga Advertising Assignment #1 September 8th 2016 Advertising VS Society Close your eyes. Think about a single commercial or ad that has caught your eye, made you look back or think twice; that one ad that echoed its catch phrase incessantly, and stirred feelings inside you. As you start to remember the sound of that catchy tune playing in its background, what exactly did it make you feel or think? Now ask yourself this, why is it still lingering in your subconsciousRead MoreAdvertisement And Culture Of The Media1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction In the era of information society, media is playing a very crucial part in everyday lives. It influences both how we see ourselves and society in all perspectives. There are different kinds of media and all of them are presenting their content in more fascinating and glamorize way to influence audience. The presentation of advertisement and pictures in the media is certainly creating a unique mental space in the mind of social capitals. As far as the advertising and their social influence areRead MoreHow does advertisement influence peoples behaviour?1319 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbstract In the modern world, advertisement is everywhere. In every abundance walk of life, there are huge competitions. As a result, advertisement has become more important. If you can be more noticeable, it means you would have chances to market. Therefore, advertising has great impact on different people. Advertising, is mainly used in market, refer to marketing message, which is presented by an identified sponsor in extinctive media such as the television, newspapers, radioRead MoreThe Impact Of Advertising On The Public Sphere Today854 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLife of modern society is inconceivable without advertising background, which is more and more obvious, more active and current. Advertising has penetrated and gets into all areas of society, actively working on the social institutions and has a significant impact on the social behavior of people. Advertising transmits information not only about products, services, markets, but also on the social, political and other types of relations in society; its cultural constructions, including interpersonal
In his influential book A Theory of Justice, John Rawls structured his concept of society around two principles of justice that he argues were best chosen under a Ã¢â¬Å"veil of ignoranceÃ¢â¬ (1971). Rawls maintains Ã¢â¬Å"that the first requires equality in the assignment of basic rights and duties, while the second holds that social and economic inequalities are just only if they result in compensating benefits for everyone, and in particular for the least advantaged members of societyÃ¢â¬ (1971). His argument for the second, while not purely and purposefully classifying society as equitable and impartial, supports the idea that contribution should be proportionate to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability or capability. We will write a custom essay sample on John RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s A Theory of Justice or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are a multitude of ways to interpret RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s second take on the concept of justice, some agreeable and some not. He argues that in order for others to prosper, some should have less (Rawls, 1971). He also asserts the idea that in looking at the bigger picture, everyone in the society achieves benefits by catering to what seems like a monopoly of wealth, power and therefore, opportunity. RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s justice supports the socialist idea that majority of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities and burdens should be carried by those who canÃ¢â¬âthose who are wealthy, have power, and therefore, are more capable of managing the said responsibilities. While these may be good points to support his ideas, RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s theory fails by theoretically preventing change in societies where these so-called social inequalities already existÃ¢â¬âsocieties where those high up already enjoy the benefits of good living standards, while those in the lower brackets either continue or further suffer in their disadvantages. It is also faulty in the sense that the poor essentially Ã¢â¬Å"pick up the scrapsÃ¢â¬ that the rich had left. Rawls idea that inequality can actually be just and fair leaves much to be desired. It should have been more egalitarian in the sense that both the rich and the poor would have equitable access to wealth and power. It would be difficult to guarantee justice in a society that separates those who can afford justice from those who can afford justice more. References Rawls, J. (1971). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. How to cite John RawlsÃ¢â¬â¢s A Theory of Justice, Papers
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Spanish Civil War Essay, Research Paper For Whom the Bell Tolls tells the interesting narrative of Robert Jordan, who is a college instructor, and American protagonist of the Republican cause in the Spanish Civil War ( 1936-1939 ) . Within a short span of 68 hours, Jordan gets involvement with a set of guerillas, and a immature adult female named Maria, with who he subsequently on in the book falls in love with. She forces him to oppugn his ain engagement in the war. This war seems unwinnable, and Jordan subsequently on realizes that contending for the interest of political causes might be excessively high a monetary value to pay. First Jordan discusses the location of a span with a local usher named Anselmo. We find out that the Spain Jordan loves is in a Civil War, and that Jordan has truly come to assist battle for the side he believes in. At that minute Jordan has to destruct a span behind the enemy lines. We will write a custom essay sample on Spanish Civil War Essay Research Paper For or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This first assignment came to Jordan from General Golz, who was a Soviet officer besides in Spain to contend the war. Harmonizing to General Golz, the devastation of this span at the right clip can be a large factor for the Republican forces. Jordan needs aid to make this occupation, so the provincial Anselmo brought Jordan to a guerilla set concealment in the mountains. From the minute Jordan meets Pablo, the leader of this guerilla set, he suspects that Pablo might take Jordan to some problem. But Jordan needs Pablo to be his ally in this operation. We find out that Pablo had gone bad. He lost his thrust, his intent as a guerilla leader. He lost the thought to merely remain concealed and survive, instead so to hassle the enemy. With the reaching of Jordan, Pablo gives new instructions to the seven work forces and two adult females of the set, on how to make things and when to make them. I think this was to demo Jordan that there is some leading in the set. A batch of the set membe rs and some other sets don Ts like Pablo, and would be happy if Jordan would kill him, but he doesn t. Alternatively Jordan makes programs to run into with another neighbouring guerilla set, led by El Sordo. Jordan has them aid in the destruction of the span. Robert Jordan finds more than the span to busy his attending. Among the guerilla set there is a adult females named Maria, who the set rescued during their last important operation. Maria and Robert about immediately are attracted to each other and pass the first dark doing love. This is non the first sexual experience for either of them. Jordan has been with other adult females. And Maria was one time raped by a group of enemy soldiers. But this was the first experience that combined sex and love for both of them. The following twenty-four hours Robert, Maria, and Pilar, who is Pablo s kept woman, travel to the hideaway of El Sordo to inquire for their aid in destructing the span. El Sordo promises their support. On the return trip, Pilar leaves Jordan and Maria on intent by themselves for a piece. And once more they make love, and this is where I think Jordan begins to recognize that this war might non be the most of import thing in his life after all. Pablo s set so tries to avoid being seen by the enemy soldiers siting through the country. El Sordo and his work forces are non so fortunate. Nationalist soldiers the enemy trap them on a hill and they are slaughtered. Jordan and the others hear the sounds of contending but did non come to help El Sordo. Jordan thinks that it is a atrocious feeling. Jordan negotiations about some personal experiences with now make him doubt the value of this war. He says the concentration of enemy soldiers and planes in the country make him doubt if they have the ability of blowing up the span. He says that if General Golz was cognizant of the Numberss of the enemy soldiers, he would desire the operation canceled. So Robert Jordan writes a message for Golz. But the courie r is delayed because of the presence of so many soldiers in the country. And eventually the note neer gets to Golz because the courier is arrested and the note is taken off. At the cantonment Maria and Jordan dream about their hereafter together, but Jordan knows that they are gulling themselves. Soon after some clip passes Pilar brings Jordan the intelligence that Pablo ran off and took with him the explosion devices. Jordan says that the span operation International Relations and Security Network T easy with the explosion devices but without it seemed impossible. Jordan now has to come up with a stopgap exploder and detonating devices merely to hold a opportunity of wining. Night and twenty-four hours after that Jordan spends to calculate out a manner, and keeping Maria. We will be killed but we will blow up the span, he whispers into her ear while she sleeps in his weaponries. On the 4th twenty-four hours, while the set eats what can be their last breakfast Pablo returns. He apol ogizes for his minutes of failing, and to do up for it he brought several more work forces from the country to fall in them, but the exploder and the detonating devices are gone, he tossed them in the river. The courier is so released and the note gets to Golz, but it is excessively late because the enemy begins their onslaught. So the mission of blowing up the span returns. Jordan and Pablo come up with some explosion devices merely in clip. And the program was that at the sound of the Loyalist onslaught the span should be destroyed. Jordan s mission is so accomplished, and he had done what he s come to make, but he is now a different adult male from what he was a short piece ago. The success gives him merely a small of satisfaction. Now the set must try to withdraw. Pablo, the most familiar with the country, comes up with a program which is possible to work. The set is fired at a batch of times, but no 1 is hurt. They all have a opportunity to get away to a safe country, except Robert Jordan. His Equus caballus is hit and falls on him, interrupting his thigh. So he is left behind, and everyone but Maria can see that there s no other manner to last unless they keep traveling. There is a short but really painful adieu. Maria protests to the terminal and won Ts leave until Pilar and Pablo force her to. Robert Jordan struggles to stay witting merely long plenty to kill at least some of the enemy, and so he merely lies there on the land. After holding read both For Whom the Bell Tolls and Farewell to Arms both novels by Earnest Hemmingway I can clearly see what War/Romance was like. The subject in For Whom the Bell Tolls is clearly demonstrated by the actions of Robert Jordan. Throughout his engagement in the Spanish Civil War, he fight s actively for a cause. Not the cause of communism, as Robert Jordan says but the cause of antifascism. As I read more and more of the novel, I realized that the engagement of Robert with the guerilla set and Maria, teach him the value of the person as he affects a larger society. For Jordan, Maria represents human love, at least the first he has of all time known. I think it is for her that he remain s behind to let the remainder of the set to get away at the terminal of the novel, showing his realisation that others depend on him as he depended on them. I don t know why he doesn t commit self-destruction at the terminal of the book, I think it may be his understanding that he must c ontend for the people whose lives are affected by the cause. The relationships between Robert and Maria, and Henry and Catherine, are both really similar. Both twosomes meet each other at the forepart, and autumn in love. And by the terminal of the book they realize that their love is better so the war, they had to contend. Robert and Henry s lives alteration, their positions on life, war, love and relationships between human s alteration. I think most alterations were for the better. I think Hemmingway depicts a few different sorts of love in For Whom the Bell Tolls. Romantic love is depicted in the relationship between Jordan and Maria. Before Jordan met Maria, he expressed himself sexually, but he neer loved. Loving Maria makes Robert a better individual, she represents the love that makes Jordan a human. For Maria, Jordan s love is the mending touch she needs to bring around the psychic lesions administered upon her by her old capturers. Hemmingway besides shows some sort of lov e between the people and land they are contending for. Jordan s love of freedom brought him to Spain to contend for the Republican cause. The hurting of Pablo s set as the guerillas listen to the onslaught on El Sordo s cantonment shows some sort of love between the people. And Pilar s concern about Maria s felicity and good being is a sort of motherly love that play s a large portion in Maria s mending procedure. To some extend For Whom the Bell Tolls non merely a book of war and love, but besides decease. Robert Jordan from the beginning of the book realizes that decease may come at any clip. Henry in the Farewell to Arms besides realizes this, but it is the nature of war that people get killed. And being at the incorrect topographic point at the incorrect clip, can acquire you killed. I think decease is besides linked to the fresh s one of major subjects, which I though was the mutuality between people. Everyone in the book and in the set depended on one another. The decease s th at happen during the narrative, like Kashkin s decease in the beginning of the book, affected the lives of others. For illustration Kashkin s decease affects Jordan and the guerilla set, because that s one less individual in their set. El Sordo s decease had some serious effects for the members of the cantonment. Jordan is besides haunted by the deceases of his male parent and gramps. I think Jordan s determination to keep off his ain decease by non perpetrating self-destruction is made in order to salvage the lives of the others who are seeking to run off from the enemy. Merely as one adult male s life can hold a strong affect on those around him, so therefor his decease can hold similar effects.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
London Bridge Hospital Operational Methods and Strategies Introduction London Bridge Hospital Operational Methods and Strategies , p. 588). The London Bridge Hospital uses operations management methods and strategies in understanding and improving labor productivity, shortening cycle times, improving the overall experience of patients, and reducing waiting lines. All these contribute to the overall financial health of the hospital. Operational methods and strategies in the Healthcare Industry In the healthcare industry and in particular hospitals, healthcare operations is a summation of all the functions that allow the hospital staff to offer their services to the patients in the best possible way. Chahal (2010, p. 362) says that the various transformations going on in the healthcare industry across the world are driving the people working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities to also adopt the reforms in their daily operations. The management of the London Bridge Hospital is aware of the fact that operational efficiency is critical to the success of any business organization. This is particularly so because the opinions developed by the patients on the hospital plays a big role in determining not only whether they will come back or not but also on the messages that they pass to their peers who are also potential clients to the hospital (Stock McDermott, 2011, p. 145). The London Bridge Hospital faces many different challenges that range from resource utilization, improvement of care, to lowering the costs to the patients. Reduction of the bottlenecks and implementation of solutions to the common problems are vital in ensuring the success of the hospital in both the short and long run. The hospital has both internal and external customers. The external customers of the London Bridge Hospital are the patients and other people who visit the hospital and its other premises for help. In particular it includes the patients, their friends, family members or any other representatives. Harper (2002, p. 169) says that the internal customers on the other hand are the facilities and the hospital staff. The employees of the hospital often buy products like medicine from the hospital store, come for treatment whenever they get sick and refer their friends and relatives to come to the hospital. The latter category of customers is very important in determining th e success or failure of the hospital as they are not only customers of the hospital, but also offer service to the external customers. This is why the management of the London Bridge Hospital does its best to ensure that its employees are well remunerated and have good working terms. As already outlined, the external customers are the people receiving services from the hospital. These customers expect the hospital staff to adapt a more personal approach in executing their service and willingness to keep them happy. The internal customers on the other hand expect that the different departments in the hospital should function efficiently in order to improve their work experience. For example, the central department should always ensure that all the instruments used in patient care are properly sterilized and stored in their right places (Dwyer et al 2010, p 519).Ã They should also ensure that the doctors get the right instruments when they need them. This is an important department in the hospital as the nurses, other hospital staff and doctors depend directly on it and its efficiency has a direct impact on the external customers. Operational objectives Healthcare operations management as a discipline integrates different principles of scientific management in determining the most optimal and efficient methods in supporting the delivery of care to the patients. Although the London Bridge Hospital does not have a department named operational management, most of the positions in the hospital involve roles of coordination and execution of different operations. Nearly 85% of hospitals are nonprofit in nature as they are there to serve the community in which they operate (Dey, Hariharan, Clegg, 2006, p. 861). Some nonprofits hospitals are often exempt from paying some taxes and are not required to continuously show positive growth rates or large profit margins like is done by most publicly traded companies. However, if a hospital fails to show positive return on the capital invested then there will be negative consequences on the economy. For instance, if a hospital fails to show reasonable margins, then the public bond market (the publ ic bond market finances most of the healthcare growth today) will likely record sub-par credit ratings. Sachdeva, Williams Quigley (2007, p. 162) claim that the consequence of this is that the bonds will have poor yields hence rendering the hospitals less than stellar investments for bondholders. The limited profit margins imply that there will be little money to invest back in the business to ensure that the buildings are updated, technology innovated, equipment replaced and clinical programs continue to expand and be enhanced. Without the investments, the hospitals will lose the ability to attract the most qualified administrators and physicians and the downward spiral will continue. While some healthcare systems and hospitals at times wait for changes in public health policy to save them, some competitive and successful ones like the London Bridge Hospital act in advance in order to save their margins. The current economic climate is characterized by perpetual pricing pressures that affect the top of the line income statement. In fact more than 50% of all hospitals report negative profit margins (Sinreich, Jabali, 2007, p. 301). This is why it is essential for hospitals to start looking forward toward more sophisticated business strategies in order to succeed. The London Bridge Hospital uses differentiated marketing strategies and programs, long term planning on service lines and broader use of advertising in order to be able to succeed in its business operations. It does this in tandem with adopting broader logistical and operational techniques into the business affairs of the hospital. The London Bridge Hospital monitors and maximizes labor productivity for all the medical support and allied health professionals as a way of maintaining salary expenses. The other strategies that other hospitals have adopted but are not currently in use by the London Bridge Hospital include: Incorporation of methods of scheduling optimization and queuing theory to eliminate time wastage and cycle time out of hospitals. Incorporation of techniques of logistical and supply chain in reducing operational expenses. Elimination of excess safety stocks. General improvement on the management of the working capital. Use of technology in the automation and streamlining of all the hospital operations to reduce operational costs and maximize efficiency. The hospitals and other healthcare organizations cannot depend on the extrinsic factors like shifts in managed care market structures and health policy as tools for changing their margin potentials. Although the macro level issues are important, the organizational and micro economic issues are more important as they have a strong and direct impact on a particular organization. In fact all the microeconomic issues are a function of operational management. As such, operational management is a set of intrinsic decisions and processes that assist in addressing productivity, costs, process and technology (Ford et al 2004, p.26). Healthcare is a primary service sector because the industry provides intangible goods to the customers. The goods here cannot be seen or touched. The services provided by the London Bridge Hospital and other hospitals in the industry are somewhat unique, differentiated, knowledge based and have high levels of customer interaction (Teoh, Pan,Ã Ramchand, 2012, p.588). There are also physical goods that accompany the service in the hospitals which the supply chain procures and replenishes. The hospitals also store medical supplies and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, in this regard hospitals have a mix of both tangible and intangible characteristics. It is these attributes that make operations management in hospitals a little different from those of other industries that strictly produce physical goods. It is in this regard that Harper (2002, p 171) defines healthcare operations management as the quantitative management of processes and supporting business systems that transform resources (inputs) into healthcare services (outputs). Inputs in this case refer to the resources and assets like equipment, labor, technology, cash, personnel and space.Ã The outputs include actual production and delivery of healthcare services. Quantitative management uses extensive quality improvement techniques, optimization and analytical tools to drive improved results. Healthcare operations management integrates quantitative or scientific principles in determining the most optimal and efficient methods of supporting patient care delivery. Functions of Healthcare Operations Management Healthcare operational management is a relatively new field in healthcare although it has been in existence in the other industries for many years. Its scope includes all functions related to business processes and management systems that underlie clinical care. It includes physical labor, physical network optimization, workflow, process engineering, supply chain and logistics management, capacity design, staffing and productivity management (Lorence Jameson 2002, p 749). Ã The healthcare operations and logistics management includes all the business functions that provide job opportunities for the people like administrators, operations supervisors and scheduling manager. Ã Operations Management Objectives or Issue to consider Workflow process How many manual processes exist? Are there ways of reducing steps, cycle time and choke points for the key processes? Can we improve speed and patient satisfaction? Are there too many departments or people performing the same task? Capacity design and planning How to reduce bottlenecks to improve the experience of patients? In which case to increase the use of technology to improve labor productivity? Staffing levels and productivity management How much output to expect from the employees? Have we maximized the use of automation and electronic commerce in increasing productivity? Quality, planning and process improvement Do we know how to compare the key competitors? Do we use advanced tools for tracking projects? Have we identified the quality issues that affect the goals of customer satisfaction and efficacy? Physical layout Are the hospital facilities designed with the consideration of traffic flow, operational efficiency and consideration of speed? Physical network optimization How to strategically utilize vendors and their facilities Where to strategically position the different facilities like pharmacy satellites, supplies and warehouses in order to minimize costs and resources. Supply chain and logistics management How much inventory needed at a particular time Whether or not to use perpetual inventory in ensuring stringent internal controls and accurate financial reporting Have we built collaborative planning and forecasting processes to standardize items and reduce total costs? The goals of operational management The operational management team in the hospital is tasked with different goals and functions in the hospital that include reduction of variability, costs, improve logistics, business processes, productivity, flow of logistics, and quality of customer service. These are explained in more details in the following sections Reduce costs The primary role of operational management is to take out the costs of the healthcare system. It finds waste, improves utilization, stabilizes and reduces the overall costs of service delivery. A hospital that has an appropriate management and tracking systemÃ with the ability to isolate material, personnel and other resources utilized for delivery of care is more likely to reduce the costs of operation because it has a good understanding of the underlying cost structure (Teoh, Pan, Ramchand, 2012, p. 591). Once the costs have been identified and all unnecessary wastes eliminated then an organization can operate efficiently. Reduce variability and improve the flow of logistics The operations management team should continually look for more efficient and optimal ways of moving both physical and information resources. This should go together with reducing variability. Chahal (2010, p355) defines variability as the inconsistency or dispersion of inputs and outputs. Variability disrupts processes because it leads to uncertainty, too few or many resources and inconsistent results. For instance, if there are 30 patients seeking treatment in a certain hospital within a specific period, and then in the following period the number doubles or triples it creates problems for the employees in terms of controlling waiting times and general management of patient flows. An improvement in flows means higher yields or throughput with the same level of resource input. Shapiro Shapiro (2003, p246) define throughput as the velocity or rate at which goods are delivered or services performed. In the hospital situation, if a hospital attends to ten patients per hour and can inc rease the number to 15 per hour then this represents a 50% improvement in throughput and logistical flow (Miller, Sumner, Deane, 2009, p. 156). In the same manner, if the number of patients in the hospital doubles and the hospital manages to maintain the same historical inventory levels of pharmaceutical supplies then this is a significant improvement in material flow owing to the higher level of capacity utilization. Resource consumption and staffing should be directly tied to workload and patient volumes (Cowen, 2008, p.410). If the number of patients increases the quantity of the resources should equally increase. Good management of this variability allows a change in staffing mix and scheduling to accommodate the changes without staffing at the low points, valleys or peaks. Improve Productivity Improving productivity means looking for higher levels of output from all employees and other assets. This ensures that the hospital is operating optimally with high levels of efficiency by not only eliminating bottlenecks but also making efficient use of the available resources within the organization (Leury, Jean-Louis, Sicotte, 2003, p58). Improve the quality of customer care Improving quality means reducing medical errors and improving the safety of the patients. Additionally, constant improvement and maintenance of high quality service levels in terms of both patient care and other business services like admissions and cafeteria is also important. In the healthcare industry just like other industries, higher quality services leads to the ability to secure higher prices and this has the effect of driving an increase in operating margins and market shares (McCue McCluer, 2008, p 36). Ensuring an improvement in the patient satisfaction levels and reducing waiting and response times simultaneously ensures that the patients get higher quality services. Continuously improve Business Processes In the highly structured organizations like hospitals, business processes often tend to be unique in all departments as they are not integrated or highly cross functional. For example the operating room of a hospital may handle the procurement of a certain good in a certain way while the gynecology department of the same hospital handles it in a totally different way. Ã Miller, Sumner, Deane (2009, p. 110) assert that in large hospitals most departments operate as independent businesses which lead to multiple problems of efficiency. This is where operations management comes in as it ensures that efficiency and effectiveness are greatly improved in the organization. Recommended Changes From the analysis it is clear that the London Bridge Hospital is performing fairly well in terms of operational management although there are areas that the hospital management needs to work on in order to improve the general performance of the organization. First off the hospital should incorporate methods of scheduling optimization and queuing theory to eliminate time wastage and cycle time out of hospitals. Ã Efficient scheduling and queuing methods will improve the experience of the customers by eliminating unnecessary time wastage. The hospital should also incorporate techniques of logistical and supply chain as a way of reducing operational expenses.Ã Ã Improved logistics and throughput in the hospital will increase the workflow and overall capacity (Noon et al 2003, p97). The London Bridge Hospital should tie staffing and resource consumption directly with workload and patient volumes. This will ensure that if the number of patients increase, then the number of resource s should equally increase as a response. Once the hospital manages to efficiently deal with the variability in the number of patients, it will have created a change in the staffing mix and scheduling to accommodate any changes. Staffing at the peaks leads to excessive costs whereas staffing for the valleys leads to periodic long lines because of the limited resources. The success or failure of the hospital depends directly on its readiness to cope well with the valleys and peaks without disrupting the normal flow of operations. This is where technology comes in as it automates most if not all of the manual processes. It also improves transaction processing capabilities and the quality of analysis, reports and organizational decisions. This will alter all the economics of the hospital because mechanization allows for faster production and delivery using relatively less resources. Substituting capital or technology for labor especially in the department of business support services wi ll reduce transactional and processing costs in the long run. As such, the role of technology in enhancing productivity is one which the London Bridge Hospital should take into consideration. Conclusion Although operations management is a relatively new phenomenon in the healthcare industry compared to the other industries, it is important to the industry because hospitals face the same challenges just like the other business organizations. The London Bridge Hospital is already making use of most of the principles of operational management although it still needs to implement some changes in its way of operation as highlighted in the discussion. These changes will ensure that the hospital continues to perform well both in the short and long run. Hospital operational management will help the London Bridge Hospital to deal efficiently with the challenges that it is currently facing. Additionally, this paper has shown that the manner in which the hospital responds to the valleys and peaks is critical to its performance. Hospital operational management has the solution for this as it puts in place mechanisms that ensure that the organization makes optimal and efficient use of its resour ces to achieve the best results without any shortages or wastages in terms of resource allocation and utilization. Bibliography Chahal, H. 2010, Two component customer relationship management model for healthcare services, Managing Service Quality, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 343-365. Cowen, M.E., M.D., Halasyamani, L.K., M.D., McMurtrie, D., M.D., Hoffman, D., R.N., Polley, T., M.D., Alexander, J.A., PhD. Banko, P.D., F.A.C.H.E. 2008, Organizational Structure for Addressing the Attributes of the Ideal Healthcare Delivery System/PRACTITIONER APPLICATION, Journal of Healthcare Management, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 407-18; discussion 419. Dey, P.K., Hariharan, S. Clegg, B.T. 2006, Measuring the operational performance of intensive care units using the analytic hierarchy process approach, International Journal of Operations Production Management, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 849-865. Dwyer, Alison J, MBBS, MBA, MHSM,F.R.A.C.M.A., F.C.H.S.M. 2010, Medical managers in contemporary healthcare organizations: a consideration of the literature, Australian Health Review, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 514-22. Ford, R., Boss, R.W., Angermeier, I., Townson, C.D. Jennings, T.A. 2004, Adapting to Change in Healthcare: Aligning Strategic Intent and Operational Capacity, Hospital topics, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 20-9. Harper, P. R. (2002). A framework for operational modeling of hospital resources. Health Care Management Science, 5(3), 165-73. Leury, M., Jean-Louis, D. Sicotte, C. 2003, The role of regional planning and management strategies in the transformation of the healthcare system, Health Services Management Research, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 56-69. Lorence, D.P. Jameson, R. 2002, Adoption of information quality management practices in US healthcare organizations: A national assessment, The International Journal of Quality Reliability Management, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 737-756. McCue, M.J. McCluer, R.F. 2008, Financial and Operational Ratios for Bond-Insured Hospitals, Hospital topics, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 37. Miller, W.J., Sumner, A.T. Deane, R.H. 2009, Assessment of Quality Management Practices Within the Healthcare Industry, American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 105-113. Noon, C.E., Hankins, C.T., Cote, M.J. Lieb, M. 2003, Understanding the impact of variation in the delivery of healthcare services / Practitioner application, Journal of Healthcare Management, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 82-97; discussion 97-8. Sachdeva, R., Williams, T. Quigley, J. 2007, Mixing methodologies to enhance the implementation of healthcare operational research, The Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 159-167. Shapiro, J. Shapiro, R. 2003, Towards an improved collaboration model for the national healthcare system in England and Wales: A critical and constructive approach using operational research, Logistics Information Management, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 246-258. Sinreich, D., Jabali, O. (2007). Staggered work shifts: A way to downsize and restructure an emergency department workforce yet maintain current operational performance. Health Care Management Science, 10(3), 293-308. Stock, G.N. McDermott, C. 2011, Operational and contextual drivers of hospital costs, Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 142-58. Teoh, S. Y., Pan, S. L., Ramchand, A. M. (2012). Resource management activities in healthcare information systems: A process perspective. 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Sunday, March 1, 2020
How to cut the cowardly language and say what you mean Cut the cowardly language Cowardly writing is the linguistic equivalent of your unreliable ex. It avoids committing. It leads you astray. It wastes your time. And it evades all entreaties to be straightforward or say what it really thinks. You can recognise it by its long sentences, convoluted structure and overuse of words and phrases such as Ã¢â¬ËclearlyÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëit may be assumed thatÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëthere is evidence thatÃ¢â¬â¢, with no verifiable evidence in sight. These vague, deceptive or empty proclamations are also known as Ã¢â¬ËhedgesÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëweasel wordsÃ¢â¬â¢ (so called because of weaselsÃ¢â¬â¢ habit of sucking the insides out of eggs, leaving a shell that still looks full). Linguistics professor Ken Hyland defines hedging as Ã¢â¬Ëany linguistic means used to indicate either a) a lack of complete commitment to the truth value of an accompanying proposition, or b) a desire not to express that commitment categorically.Ã¢â¬â¢ Ã The hedging writer distances themselves from their own content, either out of insecurity or a lack of knowledge: Ã¢â¬Ëit may be believed thatÃ¢â¬â¢ is a big, frightened step away from Ã¢â¬ËI believe thatÃ¢â¬â¢. Come out, come out So why do people hide behind woolly wording? Well, because actually saying something can be scary. It puts you at risk: of being questioned, proved wrong, or held accountable. Long, overly complex sentences and unnecessary jargon are often a sign that someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s trying to hide something Ã¢â¬â perhaps the fact that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about. And even if they do know, itÃ¢â¬â¢s going to look to the reader like they donÃ¢â¬â¢t or that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re a bit shifty. Editor Patrick Neylan lives up to his Twitter handle @AngrySubEditor on the subject of cowardice in language, and the causes behind it. Ã¢â¬ËUsually [the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s] only goal is to have written To have been understood is a worry. To have inspired action in others is terrifying.Ã¢â¬â¢ Pull the wool Of course, the whole point of writing is to inform and inspire, not confound. And if your writing goal is to persuade or encourage your reader to take action, youÃ¢â¬â¢re more likely to achieve this if you are clear and sound authoritative. So hereÃ¢â¬â¢s how to pull the wool from your writing Ã¢â¬â and therefore your readersÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes: Start by knowing what you actually want to say: do your research, plan, and structure logically. Ask yourself the all-important questions: who, where, why, what, how Ã¢â¬â and how much does it cost? And dont start writing until youre firm on the answers. Avoid the temptation to cover your back. Never mind Ã¢â¬Ëit could be said thatÃ¢â¬â¢: are you saying it or not? Be direct Ã¢â¬â donÃ¢â¬â¢t qualify everything with Ã¢â¬ËpossiblyÃ¢â¬â¢s and Ã¢â¬ËperhapsÃ¢â¬â¢s (unless youÃ¢â¬â¢re making the point that something is uncertain): state facts, reference them, and note their implications. Use the most direct words possible to make the relation between things clear, eg Ã¢â¬ËbecauseÃ¢â¬â¢ not Ã¢â¬Ëdue to the fact thatÃ¢â¬â¢. Favour simple sentence structure (subject-verb-object) wherever possible, eg Ã¢â¬ËPrices have fallen.Ã¢â¬â¢ Remove words and phrases that add nothing but ink. For example, Ã¢â¬Ëconsensus of opinionÃ¢â¬â¢ (just Ã¢â¬Ëconsensus or Ã¢â¬ËopinionÃ¢â¬â¢ will do), Ã¢â¬Ëas is explained belowÃ¢â¬â¢ (are you explaining it twice?), Ã¢â¬Ëas the case may beÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬Ëat the overall levelÃ¢â¬â¢. Speaking of inspiration, we could all do with some. Consider then, these wise words from Chinese artist and political activist Ai Weiwei,: Ã¢â¬ËSay what you need to say plainly, and then take responsibility for it.Ã¢â¬â¢ Or, with @AngrySubEditorÃ¢â¬â¢s tough love approach: Ã¢â¬Ë(Wo)man up; say what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to say, say it briefly, then shut up.Ã¢â¬â¢ Image credit: Elena Yakusheva / Shutterstock
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Gender Equality - Research Paper Example The progression of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights has been to open up their lives so that instead of being legally dependant, they could live a public life, own both land and their own person, and to have equal opportunities within the work place and the corporate world in order to be able to provide sufficiently for that autonomy. With the passing of this initiative, the opportunities for women will be addressed and assessed, furthering the goals of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights to equality in society. Until very recently society has had a very distinct view on the roles of men and women, creating separate spheres in which their worlds evolved. Labor was divided by what was deemed appropriate for men and what was appropriate for women. The behaviors within society that were defined by these roles were thought of as normal, while deviating from these roles was considered abnormal behavior (Smith and Kornblum, 2008, p. 336). Roles for men and women were divided according to the sociological need that was present. However, as the nineteenth century came to a close, and the twentieth century was born, great and unique historical changes were occurring that would begin the transition towards equality for women. At the turn of the 19th century to the 20th century, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage was a hot topic, creating a movement that revolutionized the political landscape of the United States. However, it was not within the search for the right to vote that women first applied their influences and power in order to create social change in the United States. During the abolitionist movements of the mid 19th century, it was the actions of a great many women that supported the freedom of slaves (Adams, 2003, p.12). By the end of the century, the power of women to move sociological considerations was well established and the new cause took form of political voice. For most of history, the roles that were applied to the genders were suspected to be defined biologically. Therefore, the way